a chemical found in many drinks and foods. The negative effects of caffeine include restlessness, nervousness, insomnia, twitching, stomach upset and intoxication.
a disorder of the heart. Cardiac disorders include arrhythmias, mitral valve prolapse, etc. Such conditions often need to be considered in the diagnosis of panic disorder.
having to do with the heart and circulation of blood.
see cognitive behavior therapy
chronic fatigue syndrome
a tetrapeptide that causes symptoms of panic, especially when injected into people with panic disorder.
inherited vulnerabilities or defects in genes.
the structures within the cell nucleus that contain the genes.
term used to describe problems that are relatively permanent, ongoing, and stable.
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome:
a disorder in which people experience severe chronic fatigue of six months and experience a number of symptoms including problems with memory or concentration, sore throat, swollen lymph nodes, pain, headaches, and sleep problems.
fear of enclosed spaces or being trapped.
Psychotherapist with a Ph.D. or Psy.D. who has specialised training in psychological assessment and psychotherapy.
Branch of science concerned with understanding and changing maladaptive behavior.
an act, product, or process of knowing, thinking, or perceiving.
Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP):
a research-based psychotherapy that combines Cognitive and Interpersonal principles. CBASP was designed to help motivate patients to change their behavior and achieve their desired outcome in life. The emphasis in therapy is on helping people build new problem-solving and relationship skills.
Cognitive Behavioral Perspective:
A theoretical approach to understand problem behavior that focuses on how thoughts and behavior are related to each other and how thoughts can become distorted in various ways and contribute to problem behavior.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT):
application of the cognitive behavioral perspective. A number of specific cognitive and behavioral therapy techniques are employed to challenge and alter thoughts and behavior.
a CBT technique in which false or maladaptive beliefs are systematically challenged.
Cognitive Therapy (CT):
a psychotherapy designed to treat anxiety by the challenging and modification of thinking.
an old name for PTSD
repetitive behaviors or mental acts that are performed over and over again in response to an obsessive thought (usually a fear) or until something feels "just right".
used to describe thoughts or behavior that are driven by anxiety.
a group of people who are given a placebo treatment in order to establish the safety and effectiveness of a medication or treatment.
whatever people do to cope with stress. In the long run, some coping strategies make things better and some (for example, avoidance) make things worse.
hormone produced by the adrenal gland. Cortisol production increases during periods of stress. Chronically high cortisol levels are associated a variety of problems including depression and anxiety.
hormones produced by the adrenal cortex that have anti-inflammatory properties.
a mood disorder characterized by alternating episodes of hypomania and depression.
When you’re depressed, you “feel down.” Because you’re feel down you naturally tend to have a negative outlook on life. Because your outlook is negative, you naturally assume that the world around you is a negative place. In reality, this isn’t true, but you can’t help feeling this way because you’re depressed. Distorted negative thoughts are also knows as cognitive distortions. In this program you’re going to challenge your cognitive distortions.